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The Symposia, 1933 — 2003

1966:   The Genetic Code, Vol. XXXI

Organizer: John Cairns

Summary

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Foreword    v
List of Previous Volumes    viPhotographs of Some Symposium Participants    viiList of Those Attending the Symposium    xMilislav Demerec    xxiINTRODUCTIONTHE GENETIC CODE    1CRICK, F. H C. The Genetic Code: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow    3CODONS IN VITRONIRENBERG, M., T. CASKEY, R. MARSHALL, R. BRIMACOMBE, D. KELLOGG, B. DOCTOR, D. HATFIELD, J. LEVIN, F. ROTTMAN, S. PESTKA, M. WILCOX, and F. ANDERSON. The RNA Code and Protein Synthesis    11MATTHAEI, J. H., H. P. VOIGT, G. HELLER, R. NETH, G. SCHOCH, H. KUBLER F. AMELUNXEN, G. SANDER, and A. PARMEGGIANI. Specific Interactions of Ribosomes in Decoding    25KHORANA, H. G., H. BUCHI, H. GHOSH, N. GUPTA, T. M. JACOB, H. KOSSEL, R. MORGAN, S. A. NARANG, E. OHTSUKA, and R. D. WELLS. Polynucleotide Synthesis and the Genetic Code    39SOLL, D., J. CHERAYIL, D. S. JONES, R. D. FAULKNER, A. HAMPEL, R. M. BOCK, and H. G. KHORANA. sRNA Specificity for Codon Recognition as Studied by the Ribosomal Binding Technique    51HAYASHI, H. and K. MIURA. Anticodon Sequence as a Possible Site for the Activity of Transfer RNA    63LETENDRE, C., A. M. MICHELSON, and M. GRUNBERG-MANAGO. Oligonucleotide Inhibition of Amino Acid Attachment    71DIRECTIONS OF READINGSTREISINGER, G., Y. OKADA, J. EMRICH, J. NEWTON, A. TSUGITA, E. TERZAGHI, and M. INOUYE. Frameshift Mutations and the Genetic Code    77 THACH, R., T. A. SUNDARARAJAN, K. F. DEWEY, J. C. BROWN, and P. DOTY. Translation of Synthetic Messenger RNA    85STANLEY, W. M., JR., M. A. SMITH, M. B. HILLE, and J. A. LAST. Studies on the Translation of the Genetic Message: I. Preparation of Oligonucleotide Messengers of Specified Base Sequence    99WARBA, A. J., M. SALAS, and W. M. STANLEY, JR. Studies on the Translation of the Genetic Message: II. Translation of Oligonucleotide Messengers of Specified Base Sequence    103MAITRA, U., S. N. COHEN, and J. HURWITZ. Specificity of Initiation and Synthesis of RNA from DNA Templates    113SZYBALSKI, W., H. KUBINSKI, and P. SHELDRICK. Pyrimidine Clusters on the Transcribing Strand of DNA and their Possible Role in the Initiation of RNA Synthesis    123HOGNESS, D. S., W. DOERFLER, J. B. EGAN, and L. W. BLACK. The Position and Orientation of Genes in l and l dg DNA    129IN VIVO CODE AND POLARITYREICHMANN, M. E., A. Y. CHANG, L. FAIMAN, and J. M. CLARK, JR. The Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus in Studies of Genetic Coding    139 WEIGERT, M. G., E. GALLUCCI, E. LANKA, and A. GAREN. Characteristics of the Genetic Code in vivo    145 YANOFSKY, C., J. ITO, and V. HORN. Amino Acid Replacements and the Genetic Code    151WITTMANN, H. G. and B. WITTMANN-LIEBOLD. Protein Chemical Studies of Two RNA Viruses and their Mutants    163STRETTON, A. O. W., S. KAPLAN, and S. BRENNER. Nonsense Codons    173POLARITYNEWTON, A. Translation of the lactose Operon of Escherichia coli    181MALAMY, M. H. New Jersey: Frameshift Mutations in the Lactose Operon of E. coli    189BAUERLE, R. H. and P. MARGOLIN. A Multifunctional Enzyme Complex in the Tryptophan Pathway of Salmonella typhimurium: Comparison of Polarity and Pseudopolarity Mutations    203MARTIN, R. G., H. J. WHITFIELD, JR., D. B. BERKOWITZ, and M. J. VOLL. A Molecular Model of the Phenomenon of Polarity    215AMES, B. N. and H. J. WHITFIELD, JR. Frameshift Mutagenesis in Salmonella    221HENNING, U., G. DENNERT, R. HERTEL, and W. S. SHIPP. Translation of the Structural Genes of the E. coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex    227IMAMOTO, F., J. ITO, and C. YANOFSKY. Polarity in the Tryptophan Operon of E. coli    235PUNCTUATIONZINDER, N. D., D. L. ENGELHARDT, and R. E. WEBSTER. Punctuation in the Genetic Code    251GUSSIN, G. N., M. R. CAPECCHI, J. M. ADAMS, J. E. ARGETSINGER, J. TOOZE, K. WEBER, and J. D. WATSON. Protein Synthesis Directed by RNA Phage Messengers    257GANOZA, M. C. Polypeptide Chain Termination in Cell-free Extracts of E. coli    273 MARCKER, K. A., B. F. C. CLARK, J. S. ANDERSON. N-Formyl-Methionyl-sRNA and its Relation to Protein Biosynthesis    279DICKERMAN, H., E. STEERS, B. G. REDFIELD, and HERBERT WEISSBACH. Formylation of Escherichia coli Methionyl-Srna    287BRETSCHER, M. S. Polypeptide Chain Initiation and the Characterization of Ribosomal Binding Sites in E. coli    289LEDER, P. and H. BURSZTYN. Initiation of Protein Synthesis. The Role of Formyl-accepting Methionyl-tRNA    297RICH, A., E. EIKENBERRY, and L. MALKIN. Experiments on Hemoglobin Polypeptide-Chain Initiation and on the Shielding Action of the Ribosome    303CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSIONMARGOLIN, P. and R. H. BAUERLE. Determinants for Regulation and Initiation of Expression of Tryptophan Genes    311CLINE, A. L. and R. M. BOCK. Translational Control of Gene Expression    321MARCUS, P. I. and J. M. SALB. Control of Viral RNA Translation as the Mechanism of Interferon Action    335SHEPPARD, D. and E. ENGLESBERG. Positive Control in the L-arabinose Gene-Enzyme Complex of E. coli B/r as Exhibited with Stable Merodiploids    345TOMKINS, G. M., E. B. THOMPSON, S. HAYASHI, T. GELEHRTER D. GRANNER, and B. PETERKOFSKY. Tyrosine Transaminase Induction in Mammalian Cells in Tissue Culture    349MARKS, P. A. and F. CONCONI. Polyribosomes and Control of Hemoglobin Synthesis    361NAONO, S. and F. GROS. Control and Selectivity of l DNA Transcription in Lysogenic Bacteria    363SKALKA, A. Multiple Units of Transcription in Phage Lambda    377SIDDIQI, O., B. N. APTE, and M. P. PITALE. Genetic Regulation of Aryl Sulphatases in Aspergillus nidulans    381ROTH, J. R., D. F. SILBERT, G. R. FINK, M. J. VOLL, D. ANTON, P. E. HARTMAN, and B. N. AMES. Transfer RNA and Control of the Histidine Operon    383BECKWITH, J. R., E. R. SIGNER, and W. EPSTEIN. Transposition of the lac Region of E. coli    393

SCAIFE, J. and J. R. BECKWITH. Mutational Alteration of the Maximal Level of lac Operon Expression    403

TRANSFER RNA: CHEMISTRY

MADISON, J. T., G. A. EVERETT, and H. K. KUNG. The Nucleotide Sequences of Yeast Tyrosine Transfer RNA    409

ZACHAU, H. G., D. DUTTING, H. FELDMAN, F. MELCHERS, and W. KARAU. Serine-Specific Transfer Ribonucleic Acids. XIV. Comparison of NucleotideSequences and Secondary Structure Models    417

RAJBHANDARY, U. L., A. STUART, R. D. FAULKNER, S. H. CHANG, and H. G. KHORANA. Nucleotide Sequence Studies on Yeast Phenylalanine sRNA    425

BERQUIST, P. L. Degenerate Transfer RNAs from Brewers Yeas    435

LIPSETT, M. N. Disulphide Bonds in sRNA    449

DOI, R. H. and B. GOERLER. Conformation and Binding Efficiency of LysyltRNA to a Poly A ribosome Complex    457

HAYWARD, R. S., G. L. ELICIERI, and S. B. WEISS. Ribonucleic Acid SulfurTransferase Activity in Extracts from E. coli    459

OFENGAND, J. A New Nucleotide in the tRNA of E. coli    465

WEISS, B. and C. C. RICHARDSON. End-group Labeling of Nucleic Acids by Enzymatic Phosphorylation    471

TRANSFER RNA: FUNCTION

SMITH, J. D., J. N. ABELSON, B. F. CLARK, H. M. GOODMAN, and S. BRENNER. Studies on amber suppressor Trna    479

CARBON, J., P. BERG, and C. YANOFSKY. Missense Suppression due to a Genetically Altered tRNA    487

GUPTA, N. K., U. L. RAJBHANDARY, and H. G. KHORANA. Missense Suppression in Trypophan Synthetase    499

LITTAUER, U. Z., M. REVEL, and R. STERN. Coding Properties of Methyl-deficient Phenylalanine Transfer RNA    501

PETERKOFSKY, A., C. JESENSKY, and J. D. CAPRA. The Role of Methylated Bases in the Biological Activity of E. coli Leucine tRNA    515

WAINFAN, E., P. R. SHINIVASAN, and E. BOREK. Can the Methylation of tRNA Serve a Regulatory Function?    525

FRESCO, J. R., A. ADAMS, R. ASCIONE, D. HENLEY, and T. LINDAHL. Tertiary Structure in Transfer RNAs    527

MUENCH, K. H. Chloroquine-mediated Conversion of Transfer Ribonucleic Acid of Escherichia coli from an Inactive to an Active State    539

TRANSFER RNA: INTERACTIONS

DOCTOR, B. P., J. E. LOEBEL, and D. A. KELLOGG. Studies on the Species Specificity of Yeast and E. coli Tyrosine tRNAs    543

BARNETT, W. E., and J. L. EPLER. Multiple Aminoacyl-RNA Synthetase Systems and the Genetic Code in Neurospora    549

NEIDHARDT, F. C. and C. F. EARHART. Phage-induced Appearance of a Valyls RNA Synthetase Activity in Escherichia coli    557

YU, C. -T. Multiple Forms of Leucyl sRNA Synthetase of E. coli    565

SUEOKA, N., T. KANO-SUEOKA, and W. J. GARTLAND. Modification of sRNA and Regulation of Protein Synthesis    571

Dol, R. H. and I. KANEKO. Transfer RNA Patterns of Bacillus subtilis during Sporulation and Growth    581

SUBAK-SHARPE, H., W. M. SHEPHERD, and J. HAY. Studies on sRNA Coded by Herpes Virus    583

TRANSFER RNA AND RIBOSOMES

WETTSTEIN, F. O. Differential in vivo Aminoacylation and Utilization of Homologous Species of E. coli Transfer RNA    595

MCLAUGHLIN, C. S., J. DONDON, M. GRUNBERG-MANAGO, A. M. MICHELSON and G. SAUNDERS. Stability of the Messenger RNA-sRNA-Ribosome Complex    601

TAKANAMI, M. The 5¢-Termini of E. coli Ribosomal RNA and f2 Bacteriophage RNA    611

HATFIELD, D. Oligonucleotide-Ribosome-AA-sRNA Interactions    619

FLAKS, J. G., P. 5. LEBOY, E. A. BIRGE, and C. G. KURLAND. Mutations and Genetics Concerned with the Ribosome    623

HEINTZ, R., H. MCALLISTER, R. ARLINGRAUS, and R. SCHWEET. Formation and Function of the Active Ribosome Complex    633

PESTKA, S. and M. NIRENBERG. Code-word Recognition on 30S Ribosomes    641

INFIDELITY OF INFORMATION TRANSFER

GORINI, L., G. A. JACOBY, and L. BRECKENRIDGE. Ribosomal Ambiguity    657

DAVIES, J. Streptomycin and the Genetic Code    665

WEINSTEIN, I. B., S. M. FRIEDMAN, and M. OCHOA, JR. Fidelity During Translation of the Genetic Code    671

MCCARTHY, B. J., J. J. HOLLAND, and C. A. BUCK. Single-stranded DNA as a Template for in vitro Protein Synthesis    683SPEYER, J. F., J. D. KARAM, and A. B. LENNY. On the Role of DNA Polymerase in Base Selection    693

MAGNI, G. E. and P. P. PUGLISI. Mutagenesis of Super-Suppressors in Yeast    699

EHRENSTEIN, G. VON. Translational Variations in the Amino Acid Sequence of the oc-chain of Rabbit Hemoglobin    705

RIFKIN, D. B., D. I. HIRSCH, M. R. RIFKIN, and W. KONIGSBERG. A Possible Ambiguity in the Coding of Mouse Hemoglobin    715

JACOBSON, K. B. A Test of tRNA as Amino Acid Adaptor in Hemoglobin Synthesis    719

ORIGINS OF THE CODE

WOESE, C. R., D. H. DUGRE, S. A. DUGRE, M. KONDO, and W. C. SAXINGER.On the Fundamental Nature and Evolution of the Genetic Code    723

SUBAK-SHARPE, H., R. R. BÜRK, and L. V. CRAWFORD, J. M. MORRISON, J.HAY, and H. M. KEIR. An Approach to Evolutionary Relationships of Mammalian DNA Viruses through Analysis of the Pattern of Nearest Neighbor Base Sequences    737