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The Symposia, 1933 — 2003

1973:   Chromosome Structure and Function, Vol. XXXVIII

Organizer: James Watson


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Symposium Participants    v
Foreword    xvPHYSICAL ORGANIZATION OF DNA IN CHROMOSOMES On the Nature of Chromosome-sized DNA Molecules R. Kavenoff, L. C. Klotz, and B. H. Zimm    1Yeast Chromosomal DNA: Size, Structure, and Replication T. D. Petes, C. S. Newlon, B. Byers, and W. L. Fangman    9Studies on Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA of Saceharomyces cerevisiae D. R. Cryer, C. D. Goldthwaite, S. Zinker, K.-B. Lam, E. Storm, R. Hirschberg, J. Blamire, D. B. Finkeistein, and J. Marmur    17RNA Molecules Bound to the Folded Bacterial Genome Stabilize DNA Folds and Segregate Domains of Supercoiling D. E. Pettijohn and R.. Hecht    31Studies on the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli A. Worcel, E. Burgi, J. Robinton, and C. L. Carison    43Electron Microscopic Studies on the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli H. Delius and A. Worcel    53Chromosomal Analogues: Long-range Order in Y-Condensed DNA L. S. Lerman    59X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Oriented Nucleohistone Gels J. F. Pardon, B. M. Richards, and R. I. Cotter    75Recent DNA Fiber Diffraction Studies and Their Implications for DNA Recognition S. Bram    83Quantitative Constraints in the Arrangement of Human DNA E. J. DuPraw    87ORGANIZATION OF CHROMOSOMES WITHIN THE NUCLEUSQuantitative Electron Microscopy of Chromosome Organization at Meiotic Prophase P. B. Moens    99Modified Synaptinemal Complexes in Spermatocytes of Stethophyma grossum G. H. Jones    109The Synaptinemal Complex in Homologous and Nonhomologous Pairing of Chromosomes C. B. Gullies, S. W. Rasmussen, and D. von Wettstein    117Duplication of Spindle Plaques and Integration of the Yeast Cell Cycle B. Byers and L. Goetsch    123On the Nature of Heteroploidy P. M. Kraemer, L. L. Deaven, H. A. Crissman, J. A. Steinkamp, and D. F. Petersen    133Some Aspects of Chromosome Structure in Eukaryotes D. E. Comings and T. A. Okada    145Conservation of Ar1cient Linkage Groups in Evolution and Some Insight into the Genetic Regulatory Mechanism of X-inactivation S. Ohno    155Laser Microirradiation of Chromosomes M. W. Bern    165Nuclear DNA Variation Due to B Chromosomes H. Rees and J. Hutchinson    175The Integration of Supernumerary Chromosomes into the Orthopteran Genome G. M. Hewitt    183DNA REPLICATIONDNA Replication in the Chromosomes of Eukaryotes H. G. Callan    195The Units of DNA Replication in Drosophila melanogaster Chromosomes A. B. Blumenthal, H. J. Kriegstein, and D. S. Hogness    205Functional Subunits of Chromosomal DNA from Higher Eukaryotes J. H. Taylor, M. Wu, and L. C. Erickson    225Discontinuous DNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells J. A. Huberman and H. Horwitz    233The Temporal Order of Replication of Some DNA Cistrons I. Balazs, E. H. Brown, and C. L. Schildkraut    239The Assembly of Newly Replicated DNA into Chromatin H. Weintraub    247The Mechanism of SV40 DNA Replication N. P. Salzman, G. C. Fareed, E. D. Sebring, and M. M. Thoren    257Replication of Mitochondrial DNA: Replicative Forms of Molecules from Rat Tissues and Evidence for Discontinuous Replication D. R. Wolstenholme, K. Koike, and P. Cochran-Foists    267The Replication and Structure of Mitochondrial DNA in Animal Cells H. Kasamatsu, L. I. Grossman, D. L. Robberson, R. Watson, and J. Vinograd    281Relationships Among RNA-directed DNA Polymerase Activities of Avian Viruses and Chicken Cells S. Mizutani, C- Y. Kang, and H. M. Temin    289REPEATED SEQUENCES AND THEIR ARRANGEMENT INCHROMOSOMESArrangement and Characterization of Repetitive Sequence Elements in Animal DNAs E. H. Davidson, D. E. Graham, B. R. Neufeld, M. E. Chamberlin, C. S. Amenson, B. R. Hough, and R. J. Britten    295Functional Organization of the Mammalian Genome J. Bonner, W. T. Garrard, J. Gottesfeld, D. S. Holmes, J. S. Sevall, and M. Wilkes    303Oragnization and Transcription of DNA in Chromosomes and Mitochondria of Drosophila C. D. Laird, W. Y. Chooi, E. H. Cohen, E. Dickson, N. Hutchinson, and S. H. Turner    311Characterization of the Rapidly Renaturing Sequences in the Main CsCl Density Bands of Drosophila, Mouse, and Human DNA J. E. Hearst, T. R. Cech, K. A. Marx, A. Rosenfeld, and J. R. Allen    329Bulk Isolation of Metaphase Chromosomes from an In Vitro Cell Line of Drosophila melanogaster C. V. Hanson and J. E. Hearst    341The Rolling Helix: A Model for the Eukaryotic Gene? C. A. Thomas, Jr    347Cyclodromes and Palindromes in Chromosomes C. A. Thomas, Jr., R. E. Pyeritz, D. A. Wilson, B. M. Dancis, C. S. Lee, M. D. Bick, H. L. Huang, and B. H. Zimin    353Repetitive Sequences in Isolated Thomas Circles from Drosophila melanogaster F. H. Schachat and D. S. Hogness    371Cleavage of Mouse DNA by a Restriction Enzyme as a Clue to the Arrangement of Genes M. Botchan, G. McKenna, and P. A. Sharp    383 Appendix: Cleavage of Integrated SV40 RI Restriction Endonuclease M. Botchan and G. McKennaRepetitive DNA in Polytene Chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster G. T. Rudkin and K. D. Tartof    397The Organization of Highly Repeated DNA Sequences in Drosophila melano- gaster Chromosomes W. J. Peacock, D. Brutlag, E. Goldring, R. Appels, C. W. Hinton, and D. L. Lindsley    405The Satellite DNAs of Drosophila virilis J. G. Gall, E. H. Cohen, and D. D. Atherton    417The Evolution of Satellite DNA in Drosophila virilis M. Blumenfeld    423The Action of a Restriction Endonuclease on Higher Organism DNA E. M. Southern and G. Roizes    429Acridine Orange and the Investigation of Chromosome Banding M. Bobrow    435Fluorescent Probes of Chromosomal DNA Structure: Three Classes of Acridines B. Weisblum    441THE GENES FOR RIBOSOMAL AND TRANSFER RNA Clustered Arrangement of tRNA Genes of Xenopus laevis S. G. Clarkson and M. L. Birnstiel    451Studies on the Transfer RNA Genes of Drosophila T. A. Grigliatti, B. N. White, G. M. Tener, T. C. Kaufman, J. J. Holden, and D. T. Suzuki    461Localization of Repeated DNA Sequences in Xenopus Chromosomes M. L. Pardue    475On the Cell Stage of X-Y Recombination During rDNA Magnification in Dro- sophila F. Ritossa, F. Scalenghe, N. Di Turi, and A. M. Contini    483Unequal Mitotic Sister Chromatid Exchange and Disproportionate Replication as Mechanisms Regulating Ribosomal RNA Gene Redundancy K. D. Tartof    491The Structure and Evolution of Ribosomal and 5 S DNAs in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus mullen D. D. Brown and K. Sugimoto    501Unequal Crossover and the Evolution of Multigene Families G. P. Smith    507

Gene Pool of Higher Organisms as a Product of Evolution M. Kimura    515

Secondary Structure Maps of Ribosomal RNA and Its Precursors as Determined by Electron Microscopy P. K. Wellauer and I. B. Dawid    525

The Nucleolus and the Rolling Circle D. Hourcade, D. Dressler, and J. Wolfson    537

The Synthesis of Amplified Ribosomal DNA G. P. Tocchini- Valentini, V. Mahdavi, R. Brown, and M. Crippa    551

The Molecular Organization of the Chromomeres of Acheta Involved in Ribo- somal DNA Amplification A. Lima-de-Faria    559


An Examination of the One Cistron:One Chromomere Concept B. H. Judd and M. W. Young    573

Analysis of a Whole Chromosome in Drosophila B. Hochrnan    581

The One Band-One Gene Hypothesis: Evidence from a Cytogenetic Analysis of Mutant and Nonmutant Rearrangement Breakpoints in Drosophila melano- gaster G. Lefevre, Jr    591

Organization of Chromomeres V. Sorsa    601

Chromosome Structure in Ciliated Protozoans D. M. Prescott and K. G. Munti    609


Chromosome Puffs and Gene Expression in Polytene Cells U. Grossbach    619

The Transcription Unit in Balbiani Ring 2 of Chironomus tentans B. Daneholt and H. Hosick    629

Repeated Nucleotide Sequences in a Single Puff of Chironomws tentans Polytene Chromosomes B. Lambert    637

Structure and Function in the Genome of Drosophila hydei H. D. Berendes, C. Abaso, P. J. Helmsing, H. J. Leenders, and J. Derksen    645

Temporal Control of Puffing Activity in Polytene Chromosomes M. Ash- burner, C. Chihara, P. Meltzer, and G. Richards    655

Local Structural Variations of the Y Chromosome of Drosophila hydei and Their Correlation to Genetic Activity O. Hess    663

Structure and Function of the Y Chromosome of Drosophila hydei W. Hennig, G. F. Meyer, I. Hennig, and O. Leoncini    673

Genetic Organization and Regulation of the Drosophila Y Chromosome T. G. Sanders and G. B. Ayles    685

Chromosome Products in Chironomus tentans Salivary Gland Cells J. E. Edström and R. Tanguay    693


The Length of Fibroin Structural Gene Sequences in Bombyx mori DNA P. M. Lizardi and D. D. Brown    701

DNA Sequences Neighboring the Duck Hemoglobin Genes J. O. Bishop and K. B. Freeman    707

Messenger RNAs for Individual Histone Proteins: Fingerprint Analysis and In Vitro Translation M. Grunstein, S. Levy, P. Schedl, and L. Kedes    717

Immunoglobulin Genes: Arranged in Tandem or in Parallel? O. Smithies    725

Immunoglobulin Genes: A Test of Somatic vs. Germ Line Hypothesis by RNA/ DNA Hybridization T. Delovitch and C. Baglioni    739

Regulated Expression of Mammalian Genes: Globin and Immunoglobulin as Model Systems P. Leder, J. Ross, J. Gielen, S. Packman, Y. ikawa, H. Aviv, and D. Swan    753


Transcription and Chromatin Structure B. J. McCarthy, J. T. Nishiura, D. Doenecke, D. S. Nasser, and C. B. Johnson    763

Chromatin Template Activity and Chromatin Structure R. Axel, H. Cedar, and G. Felsenfeld    773

Phosphorylation of DNA-binding Nuclear Acidic Proteins and Gene Activation in the HeLa Cell Cycle V. G. Allfrey, A. Inoue, J. Karn, E. M. Johnson, and G. Vidali    785

Enzymatic Modifications and Their Possible Roles in Regulating the Binding of Basic Proteins to DNA and in Controlling Chromosomal Structure A. J. Louie, E. P. M. Candido, and G. H. Dixon    803

A Prologue to the Study of the Nonhistone Chromosomal Proteins S. C. R. Elgin, J. B. Boyd, L. E. Hood, W. Wray, and F. C. Wu    821

Biochemical and Morphological Studies of Partially Purified Chinese Hamster Chromosomes E. Stubblefteld and W. Wray    835


Sequences of Controlling Regions of the Lactose Operon W. Gilbert, N. Maizels, and A. Maxam    845

Control Elements in the DNA of Bacteriophagel T. Maniatis, M. Ptashne, and R. Maurer    857

On the Structural Organization of the Transcriptional Unit in Animal Chromo- somes G. P. Georgiev, A. J. Varshavsky, A. P. Ryskov, and R. B. Church    869

The Globin Gene: Structure and Expression J. Paul, R. S. Gilmour, N. Affara, G. Birnie, P. Harrison, A. Hell, S. Humphries, J. Windass, and B. Young    885

Origin of mRNA in HeLa Cells and the Implications for Chromosome Structure W. Jelinek, G. Molloy, M. Salditt, R. Wall, D. Sheiness, and J. E. Darnell, Jr    891

Transcription and Structure of the Genome of the Cellular Slime Mold Dictyos- telium discoideum H. F. Lodish, R. A. Firtel, and A. Jacobson    899

Ultrastructure of Active Eukaryotic Genomes B. A. Hamkalo, O. L. Miller, Jr., and A. H. Bakken    915

Some Properties of RNA: Protein Complexes from the Nucleus of Eukaryotic Cells T. Martin, P. Billings, A. Levey, S. Ozarslan, T. Quinlan, H. Swift, and L. Urbas    921

Sequence Arrangement in mRNA: Presence of Poly(A) and Identification of a Repetitive Fragment at the 5¢ End M. Crippa, I. Meza, and D. Dma    933

An Electron Microscope Study of Sindbis Virus RNA M-T. Hsu, H-J. Kung, and N. Davidson    943

Molecular Models and Combinatorial Principles in Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis A. Gierer    951


Chromosomes 1973: Organization of Genetic Material in Eukaryotes-Progress and Prospects H. Swift    963